Publication 1609

Foerster H. von (1962) Bio-Logic. In: Bernard E. E. & Kare M. A. (eds.) Biological Prototypes and Synthetic Systems. Plenum Press, New York: 1–12. Fulltext at
Excerpt: The capacity of selfreproduction, although omnipresent in the animate world, is tied up with a host of other characteristics of living organisms and cannot claim to be a fundamental principle. I propose to consider as a fundamental principle of living things their capacity to form coalitions. Thus, sexual reproduction appears to be only a particular manifestation of this capacity. What I call a “coalition” is an aggregate of elements which jointly can do things which all of them separately could never achieve.


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