Umpleby S. A. (2001) What comes after second order cybernetics. Cybernetics & Human Knowing 8(3): 87–89. Fulltext at https://cepa.info/1879
What comes after second order cybernetics.
Cybernetics & Human Knowing 8(3): 87–89.
Fulltext at https://cepa.info/1879
In recent years the field of cybernetics has been described as consisting of two bodies of work created in two time periods: first order cybernetics from the late 1940s until about 1975, and second order cybernetics from the mid 1970s to the present. Each period lasted about 25 years. What comes next? I shall describe here what I think comes next and how the new point of view emerged, at least in my own thinking. Relevance: Second order cybernetics was in part an effort to reform science itself by adding attention to the observer. What comes after second order cybernetics is related to the evolution of science and the evolution of constructivism.