Margulis L. (1997) Big trouble in biology: Physiological autopoiesis versus mechanistic neo-darwinism. In: Margulis L. & Sagan D. (eds.) Slanted truths: Essays on Gaia, symbiosis, and evolution. Springer-Verlag, New York: 265–282. https://cepa.info/6215
More and more, like the monasteries of the Middle Ages, today’s universities and professional societies guard their knowledge. Collusively, the university biology curriculum, the textbook publishers, the National Science Foundation review committees, the Graduate Record Examiners, and the various microbiological, evolutionary, and zoological societies map out domains of the known and knowable; they distinguish required from forbidden knowledge, subtly punishing the trespassers with rejection and oblivion; they award the faithful liturgists by granting degrees and dispersing funds and fellowships. Universities and academies, well within the boundaries of given disciplines (biology in my case), determine who is permitted to know and just what it is that he or she may know. Biology, botany, zoology, biochemistry, and microbiology departments within U. S. universities determine access to knowledge about life, dispensing it at high prices in peculiar parcels called credit hours.