Taylor P. C. (2015) Constructivism. In: Gunstone R. (ed.) Encyclopaedia of science education. Springer, New York: 218–224. https://cepa.info/6796
In: Gunstone R. (ed.) Encyclopaedia of science education. Springer, New York: 218–224.
Fulltext at https://cepa.info/6796
Excerpt: I consider four versions – personal constructivism, radical constructivism, social constructivism, and critical constructivism. These have had a major impact on science education and greater impacts than other forms/versions. I start with a brief consideration of Piaget’s cognitive constructivism, which laid the foundations for the emergence of the “Big Four,” and I conclude with an integral perspective on using different versions of constructivism to shape science teaching and learning.