Willis J. (1995) Recursive, reflective instructional design model based on constructivist-interpretist theory. Educational Technology 35(6): 5–23. https://cepa.info/7114
Recursive, reflective instructional design model based on constructivist-interpretist theory. [Constructivism in media research: Concepts, criticism, consequences]
Educational Technology 35(6): 5–23.
Fulltext at https://cepa.info/7114
Excerpt: In the educational technology literature the term instructional design has so many meanings that its use has little purpose without further elaboration. In some publications, the term roughly refers to the field called educational technology in this article (e.g., Reigeluth, 1983). In others, the term is used to describe the practice of educational technology from a particular theoretical perspective such as behaviorism (Gropper, 1987). Instructional design may also be the umbrella term indicating the components that should be included in an instructional package (Merrill, 1988). The phrase has also been used to indicates the process of designing instruction (McAlpine, 1992), and still others have used it to mean a particular model or theory that can guide the design of instruction (Wright & Conroy, 1988). In this article, instructional design (ID) refers to the process of designing instructional materials, and the term instructional design model (ID model) refers to a model or theory that can guide the instructional design process.