Blassnigg M. (2010) Review of The Origin of Humanness in the Biology of Love by Humberto Maturana Romesin and Gerda Verden-Zöller. Leonardo 43(2): 182–183. https://cepa.info/4121
Review of The Origin of Humanness in the Biology of Love by Humberto Maturana Romesin and Gerda Verden-Zöller.
Leonardo 43(2): 182–183.
Fulltext at https://cepa.info/4121
Excerpt: The Origin of Humanness, written in the early 1990s, brings together two strands of research: Maturana Romesin’s research into the origin of humanness and Verden-Zöller’s research into the rise of self-consciousness in the child during early mother-child play relations. The authors’ core claim is that the human species has evolved by conserving love as a fundamental domain of cooperation expressed through the basic emotions or moods of mutual respect, care, acceptance and trust (Homo sapiens-amans) rather than competition and aggression (Homo sapiens aggressans or arrogance). In this, they do not declare an ethical imperative, but rather situate ethics in biology, since, in their view, a responsible concern for the well-being of the other (human, species, biosphere, etc.) arises naturally from a manner of living in the biology of love. This is what they propose as a way for conserving the existence of social human beings (and what they call “social consciousness”) and for countering the dominant culture of domination, submission or indifference in Western society. Ethics, in this sense, is a choice of emotioning on an individual basis that in relation to a social community defines how a particular manner of living is to be conserved over the coming generations.
Fischer T. & Richards L. D. (2017) From goal-oriented to constraint-oriented design: The cybernetic intersection of design theory and systems theory. Leonardo 50(1): 36–41. https://cepa.info/2299
Fischer T. & Richards L. D.
From goal-oriented to constraint-oriented design: The cybernetic intersection of design theory and systems theory.
Leonardo 50(1): 36–41.
Fulltext at https://cepa.info/2299
This paper traces the changing notions of constraints in design and of systems since the mid-20th century in the intersection of design theory and systems theory. Taking a second-order cybernetic perspective, the paper develops constraints as observer dependent, and it analyzes conditions under which constraints tend to be beneficial or detrimental. Ethical implications of constraints in design processes are established with reference to system boundaries. Constraint-oriented design is discussed as an alternative to goal-oriented design, and a method called constraint reversal is introduced as a strategy of deliberate defiance of constraints to support design exploration.
Foerster H. von (1989) The Need of Perception for the Perception of Needs. LEONARDO 22(2): 223–226. https://cepa.info/1714
Foerster H. von
The Need of Perception for the Perception of Needs.
LEONARDO 22(2): 223–226.
Fulltext at https://cepa.info/1714
The author uses physiological, psychological and clinical examples to place the aesthetic problem of architecture within an ethical context. Drawing on a clinical report and an experiment in perception, he argues that perception consists largely of invention on the part of the perceiver. He disputes the possibility of an objective reality, linking the popular belief in objectivity to a desire to avoid responsibility. He outlines the opposition between objectivity and ethics and, likewise, between “monologic” and “dialogic.” His discussion of the distinction between denotation and connotation leads to conclusions concerning the role of ethics in architecture.