# Author N. Panorkou

Biography: Nicole Panorkou

is an assistant professor at Montclair State University, USA. Her research interests include the development of student learning of geometry, algebra, and rational number reasoning; a focus on the ways that technology and modeling can foster the utility of mathematical concepts; and the development and validation of learning trajectories for K-8 mathematics. She holds a doctorate in mathematics education from the UCL Institute of Education in London.

Panorkou N. (2015) Proposing a Framework for Exploring “Bridging”. Constructivist Foundations 10(3): 331–332. Fulltext at https://cepa.info/2142

Panorkou N.
(

2015)

Proposing a Framework for Exploring “Bridging”.
Constructivist Foundations 10(3): 331–332.
Fulltext at https://cepa.info/2142
Open peer commentary on the article “Building Bridges to Algebra through a Constructionist Learning Environment” by Eirini Geraniou & Manolis Mavrikis. Upshot: Geraniou and Mavrikis raise the important issue of “transfer,” when students transition from activity in technological tools to paper-and-pencil tasks. In this commentary, I contribute to the conversation by focusing on the relationship between task design and students’ development of knowledge.

Panorkou N. & Maloney A. (2015) Authors’ Response: Planting Seeds of Mathematical Abstraction. Constructivist Foundations 10(3): 352–354. Fulltext at https://cepa.info/2150

Panorkou N. & Maloney A.
(

2015)

Authors’ Response: Planting Seeds of Mathematical Abstraction.
Constructivist Foundations 10(3): 352–354.
Fulltext at https://cepa.info/2150
Upshot: We consider that elementary students’ situated activities with geometric transformations and animation contain the seeds of complex, and eventually, mathematically generalizable and abstract reasoning. Further studies can explore such technologically-based activities’ potential as building blocks for flexible, creative, and formalized knowledge.

Panorkou N. & Maloney A. (2015) Elementary Students’ Construction of Geometric Transformation Reasoning in a Dynamic Animation Environment. Constructivist Foundations 10(3): 338–347. Fulltext at https://cepa.info/2146

Panorkou N. & Maloney A.
(

2015)

Elementary Students’ Construction of Geometric Transformation Reasoning in a Dynamic Animation Environment.
Constructivist Foundations 10(3): 338–347.
Fulltext at https://cepa.info/2146
Context: Technology has not only changed the way we teach mathematical concepts but also the nature of knowledge, and thus what is possible to learn. While geometric transformations are recognized to be foundational to the formation of students’ geometric conceptions, little research has focused on how these notions can be introduced in elementary schooling. Problem: This project addressed the need for development of students’ reasoning about and with geometric transformations in elementary school. We investigated the nature of students’ understandings of translations, rotations, scaling, and stretching in two dimensions in the context of use of the software application Graphs ’n Glyphs. More specifically, we explored the question “What is the nature of elementary students’ reasoning of geometric transformations when instruction exploits the technological tool Graphs ’n Glyphs?” Method: Using a design research perspective, we present the conduct of a teaching experiment with one pair of fourth-graders, studying translation and rotation. The project investigated how and to what extent activity using Graphs ’n Glyphs can elicit students’ reasoning about geometric transformations, and explored the constraints and affordances of Graphs ’n Glyphs for thinking-in-change about geometric transformations. Results: The students proved adept using the software with carefully designed tasks to explore the behavior of two-dimensional shapes, distinguish among transformations, and develop predictions. In relation to varied conditions of transformations, they formed generalizations about the way a shape behaves, including the use of referent points in predicting outcomes of translations, and recognizing the role of the center of rotation. Implications: The generalizations that the students developed are foundational for developing an understanding of the properties of transformations in the later years of schooling. Dynamic technological approaches to geometry may prove as valuable to elementary students’ understanding of geometry as it is for older students. Constructivist content: This study contributes to ongoing constructivism/constructionism conversations by concentrating on the transformation of ideas when engaging learners in activity through particular contexts and tools. Key Words: Geometry, transformations, constructionist technologies.

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