%0 Journal Article
%J Educational Psychologist
%V 31
%N 3–4
%P 175-190
%A Cobb, P.
%A Yackel, E.
%T Constructivist, emergent, and sociocultural perspectives in the context of developmental research
%D 1996
%U https://cepa.info/4586
%X Our overall intent is to clarify relations between the psychological constructivist, sociocultural, and emergent perspectives. We provide a grounding for the comparisons in the first part of the article by outlining an interpretive framework that we developed in the course of a classroom-based research project. At this level of classroom processes, the framework involves an emergent approach in which psychological constructivist analyses of individual activity are coordinated with interactionist analyses of classroom interactions and discourse. In the second part of the article, we describe an elaboration of the framework that locates classroom processes in school and societal contexts. The perspective taken at this level is broadly sociocultural and focuses on the influence of indlividuals’ participation in culturally organized practices. In the third part of the article, we use the discussion of the framework as a backdrop against which to compare and contrast the three theoretical perspectives. We discuss how the emergent approach augments the psychological constructivist perspective by making it possible to locate analyses of individual students’ constructive activities in social context. In addition, we consider the purposes for which the emergent and sociocultural perspectives might be particularly appropriate and observe that they together offer characterizations of individual students’ activities, the classroom community, and broader communities of practice.
%G en
%2 Constructivism
%4 PDF
%5 ok
%0 Book Section
%E Glasersfeld, E.
%B Radical constructivism in mathematics education
%I Kluwer
%C Dordrecht
%P 157-176
%A Cobb, P.
%A Wood, T.
%A Yackel, E.
%T A constructivist approach to second grade mathematics
%D 1991
%U https://cepa.info/5284
%X Our overall objective in this paper is to share a few observations made and insights gained while conducting a recently completed teaching experiment. The experiment had a strong pragmatic emphasis in that we were responsible for the mathematics instruction of a second grade class (7 year-olds) for the entire school year. Thus, we had to accommodate a variety of institutionalized constraints. As an example, we agreed to address all of the school corporation’s objectives for second grade mathematics instruction. In addition, we were well aware that the school corporation administrators evaluated the project primarily in terms of mean gains on standardized achievement tests. Further, we had to be sensitive to parents’ concerns, particularly as their children’s participation in the project was entirely voluntary. Not surprising, these constraints profoundly influenced the ways in which we attempted to translate constructivism as a theory of knowing into practice. We were fortunate in that the classroom teacher, who had taught second grade mathematics “straight by the book” for the previous sixteen years, was a member of the project staff. Her practical wisdom and insights proved to be invaluable.
%G en
%4 PDF
%5 ok
%0 Journal Article
%J Journal for Research in Mathematics Education
%V 23
%N 1
%P 2-33
%A Cobb, P.
%A Yackel, E.
%A Wood, T.
%T A constructivist alternative to the representational view of mind in mathematics education
%D 1992
%U https://cepa.info/2967
%X The representational view of mind in mathematics education is evidenced by theories that characterize learning as a process in which students modify their internal mental representations to construct mathematical relationships or structures that mirror those embodied in external instructional representations. It is argued that, psychologically, this view falls prey to the learning paradox, that, anthropologically, it fails to consider the social and cultural nature of mathematical activity and that, pedagogically, it leads to recommendations that are at odds with the espoused goal of encouraging learning with understanding. These difficulties are seen to arise from the dualism created between mathematics in students’ heads and mathematics in their environment. An alternative view is then outlined and illustrated that attempts to transcend this dualism by treating mathematics as both an individual, constructive activity and as a communal, social practice. It is suggested that such an approach might make it possible to explain how students construct mathematical meanings and practices that, historically, took several thousand years to evolve without attributing to students the ability to peek around their internal representations and glimpse a mathematically prestructured environment. In addition, it is argued that this approach might offer a way to go beyond the traditional tripartite scheme of the teacher, the student, and mathematics that has traditionally guided reform efforts in mathematics education.
%G en
%4 PDF
%5 ok