%0 Report
%B Technical Report #5
%I Washington School Research Center
%C Lynnwood WA.
%A Abbott, M. L.
%A Fouts, J. T.
%T Constructivist teaching and student achievement: The results of a school level classroom observation study in Washington
%D 2003
%U https://cepa.info/4658
%X This study built on a 2001–02 classroom observation study of Washington K-12 and technical schools that identified the extent of constructivist teaching activity. Results from classroom observations found that strong constructivist teaching was observable in 17 percent of the classroom lessons. The other 83 percent of the lessons observed may have contained some elements of constructivist teaching, but up to one-half had very little or no elements of constructivist teaching present. More constructivist teaching appeared to occur in alternative schools and integrated subject matter classes. There appeared to be no differences among elementary, middle/junior, and high schools in the degree to which constructivist practices were used. This study explored the relationship of this practice to student achievement, examining the percent of variance in student achievement accounted for by constructivist teaching beyond that contributed by low-income. Data came from the original observation study and from school-level standardized test scores of 4th, 7th, and 10th graders. Results found large correlations between study variables (a negative correlation between school-level family income and student achievement, large positive correlations between constructivist teaching and student achievement, and a negative correlation between constructivist teaching and school-level family income).
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%0 Journal Article
%J Universal Journal of Educational Research
%V 4
%N 2
%P 392-398
%A Akpan, J. P.
%A Beard, L. A.
%T Using constructivist teaching strategies to enhance academic outcomes of students with special needs
%D 2016
%U https://cepa.info/4701
%X Over the past decades many teaching strategies have been proposed by various educators to improve education of all students including students with special needs. No single one of these proposed teaching strategies meets the needs of all students. The new Every Student Succeeds Act, successor to No Child Left behind Law, which transfers oversight from federal level back to states, could be a benefactor for constructivism and special education. Educators are also optimistic that the new Every Student Succeeds Act will be better for vulnerable students in special education because it will introduce more flexibility in how individual states carry out evaluation of students and teachers. In addition, it will provide more flexibility on testing and adapt the curriculum to student’s needs. It would further reduce time and energy for students preparing for standardized tests or statewide exams. It will also end “Adequate Yearly Progress” – a measure that required schools to show test score gains. Constructivist teaching philosophy is all about accepting student autonomy where student thinking drives the lessons, where dialogue, inquiry, and puzzlement are valued and assessing student learning is in the context of teaching. It helps teachers to draw on new ideas as they make decisions about which teaching techniques are most appropriate for all students to learn. Now is the time to revisit the great debate of constructivism versus teacher-centered instruction and special education. Time has come to effectively explore our educational system and examine the core unit of the whole enterprise, the textbook, the classroom, a setting that is often dominated by teacher talk and students listen.
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%0 Book Section
%B Proceedings of the Third International Seminar on Misconceptions and Educational Strategies in Science and Mathematics. Cornell University, Ithaca, 1–4 August 1993
%I Misconceptions Trust
%C Ithaca NY
%P **MISSING PAGES**
%A Alsup, J.
%T Teaching probability to prospective elementary teachers using a constructivist model of instruction
%D 1993
%U https://cepa.info/7242
%X This paper is a report of a study conducted with preservice elementary teachers at the University of Wyoming during the summer of 1993. The study had two purposes: (1) to observe the effectiveness of using a constructivist approach in teaching mathematics to preservice elementary teachers, and (2) to focus on teaching probability using a constructivist approach. The study was conducted by one instructor in one class, The Theory of Arithmetic II, a required mathematics class for preservice elementary teachers.
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%0 Journal Article
%J Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences
%V 28
%N
%P 862-866
%A Azizinezhad, M.
%A Hashemi, M.
%T Technology as a medium for applying constructivist teaching methods and inspiring kids
%D 2011
%U https://cepa.info/5872
%X Constructivist teaching is based on constructivist learning theory. This theoretical framework is based on the belief that learning occurs through what a student already knows; this prior knowledge is called a schema. Because all learning should pass through the filter of the pre-existing schemata, constructivists suggest that learning is best accomplished when a student gets actively engaged in the learning process rather than attempting to receive knowledge passively with the teacher avoiding most direct instruction and attempting to lead the student through questions and activities to discover, discuss, appreciate and verbalize the new knowledge (Richards et.al., 2001). Technology is increasingly gaining attention of those who are obsessed with improving teaching and learning. In this research attempts has been made to describe and analyze elementary teachers’ perceptions of using technology as a means for implementing classroom constructivist activities. Doing this, private schools were chosen were every classroom was equipped with a PC for the teacher as well as students. The PCs were networked so that all students could interact with the teacher and other students independently or as a group. Data was gathered through questionnaires from both teachers and students. Findings of the study show that teachers intend to look at the technology provided as an effective tools for developing constructivist practices and for gaining students’ interest. Students are given free rein to be in charge of learning experiences. This method initiates an active and positive learning environment that is technology based, including teamwork while maintaining independence where necessary, which is safe and avoids the anti-motivation effects of being judged. The results show that teachers reported an increase of test scores.
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%0 Journal Article
%J Constructivist Foundations
%V 16
%N 1
%P 101-107
%A Barnes, G.
%A Možina, M.
%T Metalogue: How to Understand Bateson? In Memoriam Graham Barnes (1936-2020)
%D 2020
%U https://cepa.info/6827
%X Context: For Graham Barnes, the starting point of his research was the observation that most psychotherapists are trained in a theory-centered style of practice, neglecting epistemological and hermeneutical aspects. The consequence is an absence of critical self-reflection about some basic assumptions of psychotherapy theories and clinical practices in the psychotherapy community. When using a particular theory, therapists forget that the theory is “using” them, as well, i.e., they are unaware of the effects the theory has on them and on their relationships with clients. As an alternative to this ignorance, Barnes developed the concept, research project and clinical application of what he called “second-order psychotherapy.” Problem: How can we encourage therapists to engage in systematic self-reflection on the influence of theory on the content and structure of their therapeutic conversations? Following Bateson’s epistemological guidelines, we give an example of how our conversation about understanding his ideas includes conversation about our understanding of the conversation about an understanding of his ideas. Method: Bateson created a new didactic form of dialogical presentation to facilitate the understanding of knowing, called a metalogue, in which the content and the structure of the conversation are intertwined in such a way that it becomes more transparent how the metalevel of relationships between the speakers influences the content and vice versa. Results: By presenting our dialogues as an exemplary metalogue, we propose that metalogues could be a valuable didactic way for promoting epistemological and constructivist teaching and learning, not only for psychotherapists, but for all professionals who need better understanding of their understanding. This second-order understanding opens the space for the inclusion of self-reflection on our relationship (and its evolution) and how our relationship has shaped our understanding. Implications: Our proposal is also meant as an encouragement for contemporary constructivist thinkers to continue to reflect on Bateson’s contribution to the foundation and evolution of constructivism.
%G en
%2 Second-Order Cybernetics
%5 ok
%0 Journal Article
%J International Journal of Science Education
%V 31
%N 4
%P 541-550
%A Baviskar, S. N.
%A Hartle, R. T.
%A Whitney, T.
%T Essential criteria to characterize constructivist teaching: Derived from a review of the literature and applied to five constructivist‐teaching method articles
%D 2009
%U https://cepa.info/4665
%X Constructivism is an important theory of learning that is used to guide the development of new teaching methods, particularly in science education. However, because it is a theory of learning and not of teaching, constructivism is often either misused or misunderstood. Here we describe the four essential features of constructivism: eliciting prior knowledge, creating cognitive dissonance, application of new knowledge with feedback, and reflection on learning. We then use the criteria we developed to evaluate five representative published articles that claim to describe and test constructivist teaching methods. Of these five articles, we demonstrate that three do not adhere to the constructivist criteria, whereas two provide strong examples of how constructivism can be employed as a teaching method. We suggest that application of the four essential criteria will be a useful tool for all professional educators who plan to implement or evaluate constructivist teaching methods.
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%0 Journal Article
%J Constructivist Foundations
%V 12
%N 1
%P 83-90
%A Borg, P.
%A Hewitt, D.
%A Jones, I.
%T Authors’ Response: The M-N-L Framework: Bringing Radical Constructivist Theories to Daily Teaching Practices
%D 2016
%U https://cepa.info/3818
%X Upshot: We seek to address several questions and statements made in the commentaries by elaborating on the four main aspects of the M-N-L framework. Before doing so, we discuss the issue of constructivist teaching in the context of schools. We conclude by hypothesizing on what would be lost in the M-N-L framework by taking constructivism out of the picture.
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%0 Journal Article
%J Constructivist Foundations
%V 12
%N 1
%P 59-69
%A Borg, P.
%A Hewitt, D.
%A Jones, I.
%T Negotiating Between Learner and Mathematics: A Conceptual Framework to Analyze Teacher Sensitivity Toward Constructivism in a Mathematics Classroom
%D 2016
%U https://cepa.info/3810
%X Context: Constructivist teachers who find themselves working within an educational system that adopts a realist epistemology, may find themselves at odds with their own beliefs when they catch themselves paying closer attention to the knowledge authorities intend them to teach rather than the knowledge being constructed by their learners. Method: In the preliminary analysis of the mathematical learning of six low-performing Year 7 boys in a Maltese secondary school, whom one of us taught during the scholastic year 2014-15, we constructed a conceptual framework which would help us analyze the extent to which he managed to be sensitive to constructivism in a typical classroom setting. We describe the development of the framework M-N-L (Mathematics-Negotiation-Learner) as a viable analytical tool to search for significant moments in the lessons in which the teacher appeared to engage in what we define as “constructivist teaching” (CT) during mathematics lessons. The development of M-N-L is part of a research program investigating the way low-performing students make mathematical sense of new notation with the help of the software Grid Algebra. Results: M-N-L was found to be an effective instrument which helped to determine the extent to which the teacher was sensitive to his own constructivist beliefs while trying to negotiate a balance between the mathematical concepts he was expected to teach and the conceptual constructions of his students. Implications: One major implication is that it is indeed possible for mathematics teachers to be sensitive to the individual constructions of their learners without losing sight of the concepts that society, represented by curriculum planners, deems necessary for students to learn. The other is that researchers in the field of education may find M-N-L a helpful tool to analyze CT during typical didactical situations established in classroom settings.
%G en
%2 Radical Constructivism
%5 ok
%0 Journal Article
%J The American Biology Teacher
%V 65
%N 7
%P 491-501
%A Burrowes, P. A.
%T A student-centered approach to teaching general biology that really works: Lord’s constructivist model put to a test
%D 2003
%X Excerpt: This paper describes the results of a controlled experiment that tested the effectiveness of Lord’s teaching model in: 1. Helping students achieve better grades on standard midterm exams. 2. Develop higher level thinking skills. 3. Modify their attitude towards biology at a large, urban university. The objectives are to provide further evidence in favor of constructivist teaching over the traditional model, and to motivate fellow university professors to accept this challenge and move towards a more studentcentered method of instruction.
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%0 Journal Article
%J Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education
%V 18
%N 1
%P 55-67
%A Castle, K.
%T Constructing knowledge of constructivism
%D 1997
%U https://cepa.info/6871
%X Excerpt: Constructivist theory as developed by Piaget (1936/1952) and applied to teaching young children by Kamii (1985, 1989, 1994) and DeVries and Zan (1994) is also being applied to teacher education (Fosnot, 1989). It is based on the view that knowledge is actively constructed by individuals in interaction with the environment and with others. DeVries and Zan (1994) have found that constructivist teaching engages the learner’s interest, inspires active experimentation, and fosters cooperation. Teacher education programs whose goal is to teach teachers to facilitate children’s knowledge construction attempt to involve students in their own construction of knowledge rather than explain constructivism through lecture. Duckworth (1987) describes how she engages teacher education students with phenomena such as real objects, encourages them to wonder and question about the object, and then to explain to others the sense they are making while she tries to understand their sense. In addition, Kamii (1994) and DeVries and Zan (1994) emphasize having prospective teachers attempt to understand children’s understanding by observing and questioning them as they are involved in learning. Teachers are more likely to facilitate children’s construction of knowledge if they have reflected on what it means to construct knowledge. Teacher education programs can promote this understanding through projects such as moon watching as described in this paper. Just as the moon goes through phases of waning and waxing, teacher education students go through phas-es in their construction of knowledge of the moon and of constructivist teaching.
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