Key word "generative model"
Clark A. (2012) Dreaming the whole cat: Generative models, predictive processing, and the enactivist conception of perceptual experience. Mind 121(483): 753–771. https://cepa.info/5066
Dreaming the whole cat: Generative models, predictive processing, and the enactivist conception of perceptual experience.
Mind 121(483): 753–771.
Fulltext at https://cepa.info/5066
Does the material basis of conscious experience extend beyond the boundaries of the brain and central nervous system? In Clark 2009 I reviewed a number of ‘enactivist’ arguments for such a view and found none of them compelling. Ward (2012) rejects my analysis on the grounds that the enactivist deploys an essentially world-involving concept of experience that transforms the argumentative landscape in a way that makes the enactivist conclusion inescapable. I present an alternative (prediction-and-generative-model-based) account that neatly accommodates all the positive evidence that Ward cites on behalf of this enactivist conception, and that (I argue) makes richer and more satisfying contact with the full sweep of human experience.
Clark A. (2013) Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36(3): 181–204. https://cepa.info/7285
Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science.
The Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36(3): 181–204.
Fulltext at https://cepa.info/7285
Brains, it has recently been argued, are essentially prediction machines. They are bundles of cells that support perception and action by constantly attempting to match incoming sensory inputs with top-down expectations or predictions. This is achieved using a hierarchical generative model that aims to minimize prediction error within a bidirectional cascade of cortical processing. Such accounts offer a unifying model of perception and action, illuminate the functional role of attention, and may neatly capture the special contribution of cortical processing to adaptive success. This target article critically examines this “hierarchical prediction machine” approach, concluding that it offers the best clue yet to the shape of a unified science of mind and action. Sections 1 and 2 lay out the key elements and implications of the approach. Section 3 explores a variety of pitfalls and challenges, spanning the evidential, the methodological, and the more properly conceptual. The paper ends (sections 4 and 5) by asking how such approaches might impact our more general vision of mind, experience, and agency.
Key words: action
, bayesian brain
, generative model
, predictive coding
, prediction error
, top-down processing.
Kiefer A. & Hohwy J. (2018) Content and misrepresentation in hierarchical generative models. Synthese 195(6): 2387–2415.
Kiefer A. & Hohwy J.
Content and misrepresentation in hierarchical generative models.
Synthese 195(6): 2387–2415.
In this paper, we consider how certain longstanding philosophical questions about mental representation may be answered on the assumption that cognitive and perceptual systems implement hierarchical generative models, such as those discussed within the prediction error minimization (PEM) framework. We build on existing treatments of representation via structural resemblance, such as those in Gładziejewski (Synthese 193(2):559–582, 2016) and Gładziejewski and Miłkowski (Biol Philos, 2017), to argue for a representationalist interpretation of the PEM framework. We further motivate the proposed approach to content by arguing that it is consistent with approaches implicit in theories of unsupervised learning in neural networks. In the course of this discussion, we argue that the structural representation proposal, properly understood, has more in common with functional-role than with causal/informational or teleosemantic theories. In the remainder of the paper, we describe the PEM framework for approximate Bayesian inference in some detail, and discuss how structural representations might arise within the proposed Bayesian hierarchies. After explicating the notion of variational inference, we define a subjectively accessible measure of misrepresentation for hierarchical Bayesian networks by appeal to the Kullbach–Leibler divergence between posterior generative and approximate recognition densities, and discuss a related measure of objective misrepresentation in terms of correspondence with the facts.
Key words: problem of content
, functional role semantics
, structural resemblance
, prediction error minimization
, generative model
, recognition model
, kullbach–leibler divergence
, bayesian inference
, unsupervised learning
Osborne J. (1993) Beyond constructivism. In: Proceedings of the Third International Seminar on Misconceptions and Educational Strategies in Science and Mathematics. Cornell University, Ithaca, 1–4 August 1993. Misconceptions Trust, Ithaca NY: **MISSING PAGES**. https://cepa.info/7248
In: Proceedings of the Third International Seminar on Misconceptions and Educational Strategies in Science and Mathematics. Cornell University, Ithaca, 1–4 August 1993. Misconceptions Trust, Ithaca NY: **MISSING PAGES**.
Fulltext at https://cepa.info/7248
During the past decade ‘Constructivism’ or one of its many variants has become the dominant ideology in science and mathematics education. A casual, disinterested observer might be shocked at the rate at which this school of thought has permeated research communities across the globe and at the grip that it holds on their work. In this paper, I wish to concentrate on the notion of Constructivism prevalent in science education as defined by the the Generative model of learning (Osborne and Wittrock 1985), Driver’s (1985) account of a constructivist approach to curriculum development and White’s (1988) position on the learning of science.
Quattrocki E. & Friston K. (2014) Autism, oxytocin and interoception. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 47: 410–430. https://cepa.info/5571
Quattrocki E. & Friston K.
Autism, oxytocin and interoception.
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 47: 410–430.
Fulltext at https://cepa.info/5571
Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by profound social and verbal communication deficits, stereotypical motor behaviors, restricted interests, and cognitive abnormalities. Autism affects approximately 1% of children in developing countries. Given this prevalence, identifying risk factors and therapeutic interventions are pressing objectives – objectives that rest on neurobiologically grounded and psychologically informed theories about the underlying pathophysiology. In this article, we review the evidence that autism could result from a dysfunctional oxytocin system early in life. As a mediator of successful procreation, not only in the reproductive system, but also in the brain, oxytocin plays a crucial role in sculpting socio-sexual behavior. Formulated within a (Bayesian) predictive coding framework, we propose that oxytocin encodes the saliency or precision of interoceptive signals and enables the neuronal plasticity necessary for acquiring a generative model of the emotional and social ‘self.’ An aberrant oxytocin system in infancy could therefore help explain the marked deficits in language and social communication – as well as the sensory, autonomic, motor, behavioral, and cognitive abnormalities – seen in autism.
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