Publication 1133

Vanderstraeten R. (2001) Observing systems: A cybernetic perspective on system/environment relations. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 31: 297–311. Fulltext at
This article first sketches the transition from first-order to second-order cybernetics. Next it presents an analysis of George Spencer Brown’s Laws of Form. Against this background, Niklas Luhmann’s constructivism is afterwards analyzed in more detail. It is thereby shown how second-order observations “work” within modern society. Relevance: This article presents an analysis of the constructivist position developed by Niklas Luhmann in his late writings.


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