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Ghosal A. (1999) Second order cybernetics: Implications in real life. Kybernetes 28(4): 377–384.
The second order cybernetics rests on the promise that the system definition includes the observer/researcher as a key element. While the first order cybernetics is mainly directed towards problems of control and homeostasis relating to physical and engineering systems, the second order cybernetics (SOC) also considers problems of growth and morphogenesis in biological, economic and social systems. This paper gives an exposition of SOC and its applications.
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