Publication 5052

Ulanowicz R. E. (2000) Ontic closure and the hierarchy of scale. In: Chandler J. & Van de Vijver G. (eds.) Closure: Emergent organizations and their dynamics. New York Academy of Sciences, New York: 266–271.
The Newtonian, universalist world view is incompatible with the notion of ontological indeterminacy. A hierarchical, or granular perspective, however, reveals how the consequences of pure chance, at scales far removed from those at which the event occurs, can be mitigated.
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