Approach «Constructivist Approaches»

1. Questioning the Cartesian separation between the objective world and subjective experience
2. Including the observer in scientific explanations
3. Rejecting representationalism: knowledge is a system-related cognitive process rather than a mapping of an objective world onto subjective cognitive structures
4. Defining reality as being brought forth by the subject rather than passively received
5. Claiming that any reference to a mind-independent reality beyond one’s cognitive horizon is metaphysical speculation
6. Moving the focus of research from the world that consists of matter to the world that consists of what matters
7. Defining cognitive systems as self-referential and organizationally closed: They strive for control over their inputs rather than their outputs
8. Favoring a process-oriented approach rather than a substance-based perspective: Systems are defined by the processes whereby they constitute and maintain their own organization
9. Defining sociality as accommodation within the framework of social interaction
10. Asking for an open and less dogmatic approach to science in order to generate the flexibility that is needed to cope with today’s scientific frontiers
Cite this definition as: Riegler A. (2020) Constructivist Approaches. Constructivist E-Paper Archive. Version of 8 August 2020. Available at

Publications Found: 38 · Show All Abstracts

Baerveldt. C. (2013) Constructivism contested: Implications of a genetic perspective in psychology. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science 47(1): 156–166. Fulltext at
Becerra G. (2016) Los usos del constructivismo en las publicaciones científicas de Latinoamérica [Uses of constructivism among Latin-American scientific publications]. Mad 35: 38–59. Fulltext at
Becerra G. & Castorina J. A. (2018) Towards a Dialogue Among Constructivist Research Programs. Constructivist Foundations 13(2): 191–198. Fulltext at
Bunnell P. & Riegler A. (2011) Maturana Across the Disciplines. Constructivist Foundations 6(3): 287–292. Fulltext at
Castorina J. A. (2009) El constructivismo de inspiración piagetiana y el constructivismo radical: Un análisis crítico [Piagetian-inspired constructivism and radical constructivism: A critical analysis]. In: Narciandi J. C. L., Criado T. S. & Gómez D. L. (eds.) ¿Dónde reside la acción? Agencia, constructivismo y psicología. Universidad de Murcia, Murcia: 91–116. Fulltext at
Chiari G. & Nuzzo M. L. (2010) Constructivist psychotherapy: A narrative hermeneutic approach. Routledge, London. Reviewed in Constructivist Foundations 5(2)
Drudy S., Gash H., Lynch K., Lavin P., Moles, Lane C., Ganly M., Forgarty C., O’Flynn G. & Dunne A. (1991) Integrating equal opportunities in the curriculum of teacher education 1988–1991: TENET Programme Dissemination Phase. Irish Educational Studies 10(1): 271–289. Fulltext at
Gash H. (1991) Gender perceptions, a constructivist approach to stereotyping. Oideas 37: 57–74. Fulltext at
Gash H. (1992) Reducing prejudice: Constructivist considerations for special education. European Journal of Special Needs Education 7(7): 146–155. Fulltext at
Gash H. (1993) A constructivist attempt to promote positive attitudes towards children with special needs. European Journal of Special Needs Education 8: 106–125. Fulltext at
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