Author J. Stewart
John Stewart (1941–2021) worked in the fields of the sociology of science, theoretical immunology, cognitive science, and the philosophy of technology. His publications are notably on the IQ heredity–environment debate, genetic engineering, the evolution of the immune system, and the relation between genetics and biology as a science of life. He criticized conventional and established science because it splits the objective and the subjective. He argued that molecular biology, and in particular contemporary genetics, ignores the organism as such and only thematizes the formal dimension of genes. His scientific work aimed at reconciling the two objective and subjective dimensions in a way quite akin to the work of his colleague and friend Francisco Varela. This is particularly developed in his last book Breathing Life into Biology (2019). In 2010 he co-edited the book Enaction: Toward a New Paradigm for Cognitive Science. John passed away on 31 January 2021. See obituary at

Publications Found: 73 · Show All Abstracts

Amamou Y. & Stewart J. (2006) Analyse descriptive de trajectoires perceptives. [Representations: External memory and technical artefacts] In: Proceedings of the 18th Conference on l’Interaction Homme-Machine (IHM’06), Montréal, Canada, 18–21 April 2006. ACM Press, New York: 145–148.
Amamou Y. & Stewart J. (2006) Perceptive strategies with an enactive interface. In: ENACTIVE/06: Enaction & Complexity. Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on enactive interfaces. Association ACROE, Grenoble: 101–102. Fulltext at
Amamou Y. & Stewart J. (2007) Modelling enactive interaction with a perceptual supplementation device. [Representations: External memory and technical artefacts] In: Proceedings of the 4th international conference on enactive interfaces (ENACTIVE/07). Association ACROE, Grenoble: 33–36. Fulltext at
Amamou Y., Gaenne O., Rovira K. & Stewart J. (2005) Modelling the dynamics of enaction. [Representations: External memory and technical artefacts] In: Proceedings of the 2nd International conference on Enactive Interfaces (ENACTIVE’05), Genova. Italy, 17–18 November 2005. Association ACROE, Grenoble.
Auvray M., Lenay C. & Stewart J. (2009) Perceptual interactions in a minimalist virtual environment. New Ideas in Psychology 27: 32–47. Fulltext at
Bourgine P. & Stewart J. (2004) Autopoiesis and cognition. Artificial Life 10: 327–345. Fulltext at
Calenbuhr V., Bersini H., Stewart J. & Varela F. J. (1995) Natural tolerance in a simple immune network. Journal of Theoretical Biology 177: 199–213. Fulltext at
Calenbuhr V., Bersini H., Varela F. J. & Stewart J. (1993) The impact of the structure of the connectivity matrix on the dynamics of a simple model for the immune network. In: Mosekilde E. (ed.) Proceedings of the First Copenhagen Symposium on Computer Simulation in Biology, Ecology and Medicine. Simulation Council Inc., San Diego CA: 41–45.
Carneiro J. & Stewart J. (1995) Self and nonself revisited: Lessons from modelling the immune network. In: Moran F., Moreno A., Merelo J. J. & Chaco P. (eds.) Advances in Artificial Life. Springer, Berlin: 406–420. Fulltext at
Coutinho A., Andersson A., Sunsblad A., Lundkvist I., Holmberg D., Arala-Chaves M., Stewart J. & Varela F. J. (1990) The dynamics of immune networks. In: Osterhaus A. & Uytdehaag F. (eds.) Idiotype networks in biology and medicine. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam: 59–63. Fulltext at
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